North America

The precedents for disease eradication through international cooperation

Part one

By Frank Gaglioti, 15 September 2020

An examination of the historical record demonstrates that infectious diseases like COVID-19 can be eliminated.

Albany, New York nurses set to strike; walkout continues at Cerrejón mining complex in Colombia

Workers Struggles: The Americas

15 September 2020

Some 2,500 nurses at Albany Med are set to strike over contract issues while workers at Colombia’s Cerrejón mining complex in the La Guajira department are in the third week of a strike against threatened layoffs.

Trump, Roger Stone call for violence and repression after Election Day

By Patrick Martin, 14 September 2020

The US president and his oldest political crony called for a police-military crackdown to back his continued rule.

University of Michigan graduate students vote to extend strike as opposition erupts at campuses throughout the US

By Genevieve Leigh, 14 September 2020

The reopening of campuses is driving an expansion of the coronavirus pandemic, with 19 of the 25 largest outbreaks in communities with colleges that have started in-person learning.

“A general strike is a must to stop this back-to-work and back-to-school madness”

Autoworkers support University of Michigan strikers

By our reporters, 14 September 2020

Like the herding of workers into the auto factories, the drive to reopen schools and colleges even as the pandemic continues to rage is entirely driven by profit interests.

“In the end, it is all about profit"

University of Illinois Hospital nurses strike over staff shortages, unsafe conditions

By Benjamin Mateus and George Gallanis, 14 September 2020

UIH nurses in Chicago walked out Saturday to demand patient limits and safe work environments.

University of Illinois at Chicago workers go on strike against low wages and unsafe conditions

By Kylie Rose and Andy Thompson, 14 September 2020

Workers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have gone on strike against low wages and unsafe conditions as the COVID-19 pandemic spreads rapidly through college campuses.

More than 15,000 attend University of Texas football game amidst coronavirus pandemic

By Chase Lawrence, 14 September 2020

A UT Austin spokesperson confirmed that only 1,198 attendees were tested before the game. Out of these, 95 tested positive, or nearly 8 percent.

Millions in the US choke on hazardous air as West Coast fires continue to rage

By Kayla Costa, 14 September 2020

With 33 dead and over 4.6 million acres burned, the unprecedented fires in California, Oregon and Washington have quickly spiraled into a catastrophe affecting the lives of millions.

Wildcat strike over COVID-19 at Lear auto parts plant in Indiana

By Marcus Day, 14 September 2020

Lear workers refused to work for several hours Friday night after learning of potential COVID-19 cases in the facility, halting production also at the nearby Ford Chicago Assembly Plant.

Wisconsin Supreme Court blocks mailing out of absentee ballots pending ruling on Green Party ballot access

By Jacob Crosse, 14 September 2020

The Democratic party has led the charge in purging third-party candidates, including the Greens, from the November ballot.

COVID-19 outbreak at Virginia migrant detention center caused by repression of anti-police brutality protesters

By Joe Williams, 14 September 2020

The outbreak at the Farmville detention center demonstrates the capitalist class’s disdain for democratic rights and the lives of the entire population.

Tens of thousands in southwest Louisiana remain without power two weeks after Hurricane Laura

By J. L’Heureau, 14 September 2020

With Tropical Storm Sally on track to hit Louisiana early this week the social and ecological crisis wrought in the wake of the last major storm is still coming into focus.

Congressional investigation opened into deaths of 27 soldiers this year at Fort Hood, Texas

By Chase Lawrence, 14 September 2020

The military newspaper Stars and Stripes has dubbed the base the US Army’s “most crime ridden post.”

The California wildfires, climate change and capitalism

By Bryan Dyne, 14 September 2020

The wildfires ripping through California and Oregon have exposed yet again the dangers posed by climate change and the inability of capitalist governments to deal with it.

Wildfires devastate US West Coast

By Linda Rios, 12 September 2020

As with the criminal mishandling of COVID-19, the mass devastation wrought by the wildfires exposes the complete inability of capitalism to address any social problem.

University of Michigan grad students set to extend strike as opposition grows to the US back-to-school drive

By Genevieve Leigh, 12 September 2020

Nineteen of the 25 hottest outbreaks in the US are in communities with colleges that have reopened for in-person learning, sparking growing anger over the homicidal back-to-school campaign.

University of Michigan strikers speak out: “We need to resist going back to normal. Normal no longer exists”

By our reporters, 12 September 2020

The strike is quickly turning into a focal point of a much broader opposition to the reckless reopening of both K-12 schools and college campuses everywhere.

As Congress rejects renewal of unemployment benefits

US jobless claims top 884,000 for second week in a row

By Jacob Crosse, 12 September 2020

With no congressional relief in sight, millions of workers are seeing meager unemployment benefits expire while layoffs continue to mount.

As Trump incites police, fascist attacks on social protests

Biden pledges to keep troops in the Middle East and maintain record military spending

By Barry Grey, 12 September 2020

Since Labor Day, Biden has focused on appeals for support from the military and national security establishment, along with economic nationalist demagogy and pledges to prosecute “violent” left-wing protesters.

“I don’t want to be a typhoid Mary!”

Jacksonville, Florida teacher speaks out against deadly school reopenings

By Nancy Hanover and Matthew MacEgan, 12 September 2020

A teacher in Jacksonville, Florida, reached out to the WSWS to speak about the spread of the coronavirus across the state just two weeks into the new school year.

Why did so many poor New Yorkers die of COVID-19?

By Josh Varlin, 12 September 2020

Inequality, including in-hospital care, determined whether thousands of people in New York City would die of COVID-19.

Mexico runs out of death certificates with 122,765 “excess deaths” reported during pandemic

By Norissa Santa Cruz and Carlos Reed, 12 September 2020

The Mexican President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador has done nothing to prevent the virus from claiming the lives of tens of thousands, most of them poor workers.

Infected students denounce administration guidelines, amidst rising COVID-19 cases at Southern California universities

By Melody Isley and Emiri Ochiai, 12 September 2020

Infected students report callous treatment from school administration, being thrown into isolation rooms without bed sheets, food or sanitizing equipment.

State University of New York scapegoats students for COVID outbreaks, prepares repressive measures

By Alex Findijs, 12 September 2020

Refusing to take any responsibility for this catastrophe, the SUNY system is punishing groups of students for gathering and laying the ground for further police repression on campuses.

Trade unions confer with big business Liberals on how to revive Canadian capitalism

By Roger Jordan, 12 September 2020

The government’s real agenda is for a rapid return to work, higher corporate profitability and “competitiveness,” and to advance Canadian imperialism’s predatory interests internationally.

Amazon uses former government agents to spy on workers

By Shuvu Batta, 12 September 2020

A number of recent exposures confirm that Amazon has established its own secret internal intelligence agency to spy on its workforce.

As pandemic death toll approaches 200,000, American oligarchs celebrate their wealth

By Niles Niemuth, 12 September 2020

According to Forbes’ list of the 400 wealthiest Americans, the super-rich now possess $3.2 trillion, enough to pay for an entire year of public education, health care, nutrition and disaster relief for millions of people.

US attempting to block Spanish investigation into CIA spying on Assange

By Oscar Grenfell, 12 September 2020

The US authorities are seeking to prevent judicial confirmation that their pursuit of Assange has included illegal spying, and gross violations of attorney-client privilege.

NYU’s Center for Social Media & Politics: A think tank for a frightened ruling class

By Elliott Murtagh, 12 September 2020

The establishment of the center at NYU, a university with close ties to the state, reflects the ruling class’s increasing concerns over the political effects of social media.

State University of New York scapegoats students for COVID outbreaks, prepares repressive measures

By Alex Findijs, 11 September 2020

Refusing to take any responsibility for this catastrophe, the SUNY system is on a crusade to punish groups of students for gathering and lay the ground for further police repression on campuses.

University of Michigan graduate students take a stand for life against profit

By Joseph Kishore - Socialist Equality Party candidate for US president, 11 September 2020

Opposition to the resumption of classes at the University of Michigan is part of a broader struggle of workers against the homicidal policy of the ruling class related to the pandemic.

Speaking before auto union bureaucrats in Michigan, Biden makes nationalist appeal

By Patrick Martin, 10 September 2020

The Democratic nominee sought to maintain one of the most pernicious fictions of capitalist politics—that the union executives represent the working class, rather than serving as a corporate police force.

Democrats and media silent on execution of Michael Reinoehl by US Marshals

By Kevin Reed, 10 September 2020

New details on the September 3 killing of Michael Reinoehl by a task force led by federal Marshals confirm that the Portland protester was executed in a hail of police bullets.

“We have lit a match that could unite a global wave”

University of Michigan grad students reject administration offer, continue strike against unsafe conditions

By Jerry White, 10 September 2020

Striking graduate student instructors voted by more than 700 to 400 to reject the blackmail proposal from the administration and continue their strike to demand the shutdown of in-person learning amidst the pandemic.

New York City educators launch safety committee to halt the reopening of schools

By the New York City Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee, 10 September 2020

In launching this committee, we stand wholly independent of both the Democrats and Republicans, as well as the United Federation of Teachers and its backers, all of whom have conspired to enforce the reopening of schools.

Salt Lake City police engage in a cover-up after shooting autistic 13-year-old boy multiple times

By Jacob Crosse, 10 September 2020

Linden Cameron was shot by a Salt Lake City, Utah police officer after his mother called emergency services to report that her son was experiencing a mental health crisis and needed help.

Oregon governor declares state of emergency calling wildfires a “once-in-a-generation event”

By Kevin Martinez, 10 September 2020

Oregon Governor Kate Brown declared a wildfire emergency after two towns burnt to the ground and thousands of residents have been ordered to evacuate.

Unifor selects Ford Canada as target company to establish “pattern contract”

By Carl Bronski, 10 September 2020

While autoworkers are pressing for a fight against job cuts, speed-up, declining real wages and discriminatory two-tier wages, Unifor is maneuvering to impose further concessions.

The plot against America and the world: How the US government and the media suppressed the truth about the COVID-19 pandemic

By Bryan Dyne and Andre Damon, 10 September 2020

Newly released recorded conversations between Donald Trump and reporter Bob Woodward make clear that the White House, abetted by the media, made a calculated decision to suppress information about the pandemic that has cost nearly 200,000 lives.

Assange targeted for political views in “terrifying threat to First Amendment,” expert witnesses tell hearing

By Laura Tiernan and Thomas Scripps, 10 September 2020

WikiLeaks’ exposure of civilian casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan had played “possibly the most important role” in catalysing public opposition to both wars.

The University of Michigan graduate student strike: A significant step forward for workers and students

By Matthew Brennan and Luke Galvin, 9 September 2020

On Tuesday morning, approximately 1,000 graduate student workers went on strike in opposition to the dangerous health and working conditions they face in the pandemic.

Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer greenlights the resumption of high school sports during pandemic

By Valery Tsekov, 9 September 2020

Ignoring the advice of Michigan’s chief medical executive, the Democratic governor suspended her executive order banning high school contact sports.

As US Senate returns from summer recess

Republicans, Democrats block restoration of jobless aid

By Barry Grey, 9 September 2020

Both parties have a common interest in using the threat of destitution and homelessness to pressure workers into returning to COVID-19-infected factories and unsafe schools.

Rochester police chief resigns following violent police repression against protesters

By Jason Melanovski, 9 September 2020

Rochester Police Chief La'Ron Singletary refused to accept any responsibility for the killing of Prude, instead criticizing protesters for demeaning his character.

Western US ravaged by catastrophic fires, record heat

By Rafael Azul, 9 September 2020

The record fires and deadly temperatures are an indictment of the failure of capitalism to resolve the ever-deepening environmental crisis caused by global warming.

Two decades of US “war on terror” responsible for displacing at least 37 million people and killing up to 12 million

By Jacob Crosse, 9 September 2020

A new report from Brown University estimates the number of people who have fled from US military operations since September 2001 to be as high as 59 million.

“Pandemic be damned”: Forbes 400 wealthiest Americans list reveals billionaire bonanza

By Kevin Reed, 9 September 2020

The annual list of the richest people in the US shows the enormous fortunes made during the pandemic while tens of millions have lost their jobs.

US makes “significant adjustments” to its Taiwan policy

By Ben McGrath, 9 September 2020

Washington’s policy changes are designed to give the appearance of adhering to the “One China” policy while actually moving to upend the status quo.

University of Illinois Hospital nurses poised to strike over unsafe staffing conditions

By Benjamin Mateus, 9 September 2020

UIH nurses in Chicago are set to begin a week-long strike over unsafe staffing ratios, which have provoked several stoppages by nurses across the country during the pandemic.

Wealth of Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos surpasses $200 billion

By Tom Carter, 9 September 2020

According to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, the world’s 500 richest people have accumulated an additional $809 billion so far this year, increasing their total wealth by around 14 percent.

The Civil War Election

Statement of the Socialist Equality Party (US) Political Committee, 9 September 2020

The US election, now less than two months away, is entering its final stages under conditions of unprecedented social, economic and political crisis.

Supreme Court refuses to hear SEP challenge to Michigan ballot access denial

By Kevin Reed, 9 September 2020

The SEP’s three-month legal campaign for ballot access in Michigan came to an end on Friday with the state proceeding to the production of the ballots with the names of Joseph Kishore and Norissa Santa Cruz excluded.

University of Michigan graduate students strike over pandemic danger

By our reporters, 8 September 2020

The Graduate Employees Organization (GEO) reported overwhelming support for the strike from its members with 80% voting in support of the strike action.

In the face of increasing government, fascist attacks

Protests against police violence continue across the US

By Jacob Crosse, 7 September 2020

Despite daily assaults by police, federal agents and right-wing vigilantes, protests against police murder have continued across the US, in some cities topping 100 days.

DSA member in Spokane, Washington detained by unidentified officers before police violence protest

By Kayla Costa, 7 September 2020

Jeremy Logan was snatched by five plainclothes police officers, and held in jail for over a day, where federal agents attempted to interrogate him, before being released.

Massive speculation fuelled by the Fed has driven Wall Street surge

By Nick Beams, 7 September 2020

The extent of the escalation is indicated by Apple, which last month saw its market capitalisation hit more than $2 trillion, having gained $1 trillion in just 21 weeks.

Political furor erupts over Trump slurs against dead and wounded US soldiers

By Patrick Martin, 7 September 2020

The US president only states in a particularly crude and vulgar fashion what the capitalist class as a whole thinks about those it treats as cannon fodder.

Oppose unsafe school openings! Follow the science, not greed, say Detroit educators

By the Detroit Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee, 7 September 2020

The World Socialist Web Site has received an announcement of the formation of the Detroit Educators Rank-and-File Safety Committee.

San Diego, California school districts plan reopenings based on dangerous new state guidelines

By Renae Cassimeda and Jake Dean, 7 September 2020

The move to reopen schools will place thousands of students, educators and their families at risk of infection, and exacerbate the spread of COVID-19 throughout the region.

Facebook announces political censorship plan in advance of US presidential election

By Kevin Reed, 7 September 2020

The new measures are aimed at protecting the capitalist two-party system and labeling left-wing political ideas as the work of “Russian interference.”

“Schools should not be opened if it puts people at risk”

Australian teachers back US educators’ fight for independent rank and file safety committees

By our correspondents, 7 September 2020

Australian school teachers denounce re-opening of American schools and support the formation of rank-and-file safety committees.

Teen in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania linked to 40 new COVID-19 cases

By Isaac Finn, 7 September 2020

The rapid spread of the virus in this case points to the danger of school reopenings for teachers, students and communities throughout the US.

Trump administration overpays, underdelivers on USDA food box program for the hungry

By Alex Findijs, 7 September 2020

Millions of dollars that could be utilized to feed struggling workers have been wasted all while millions of American families go hungry and millions of pounds of food have gone to waste in the fields.

Virginia’s Democratic governor calls for drastic budget cuts amid growing social crisis caused by COVID-19

By Dominic Gustavo and Nick Barrickman, 7 September 2020

The cuts would effectively gut the few gains that were given to workers in the previously planned budget.

Toppling of Sir John A. Macdonald statue triggers furor within Canada’s ruling elite

By Roger Jordan and Keith Jones, 7 September 2020

Macdonald was a ruthless representative of Canadian capitalism, but the racialist political perspective advanced by those who tore down his statue is deeply retrograde.

US enters new phase of coronavirus pandemic: Report estimates more than 400,000 deaths by January

By Joseph Kishore—SEP candidate for US President, 7 September 2020

The policy that has been adopted by the Trump administration and the ruling class is “herd immunity”—that is, the abandonment of any organized measures aimed at safeguarding public health.

The unanswered questions in the latest Russian “meddling” allegations

By Andre Damon, 7 September 2020

The US media's claims of a nefarious campaign by Russia to "sow divisions" during in the 2016 election have been discredited. But the New York Times is “at it again.”

The killing of Michael Reinoehl: A state murder

By Niles Niemuth, 7 September 2020

Reinoehl’s death was a state-sanctioned killing, carried out with the support of the Justice Department and the White House.

The Movement for a People’s Party: No program, no principles, no future

By Jacob Crosse and Joseph Kishore, 7 September 2020

The eclectic combination of individuals brought together to form a new “People’s Party” lacked a common conception, outside of a general orientation to the Democratic Party and bourgeois politics.

Federal task force kills suspect in slaying of right-wing Trump supporter in Portland

By Niles Niemuth, 5 September 2020

Michael Forest Reinoehl, gunned down by a fugitive task force in Washington State on Thursday, had said he was being “hunted” by far-right groups coordinating with the police.

“You’re trying to kill me”

Rochester, New York police tortured and murdered a man in March, video shows

By Samuel Davidson, 5 September 2020

Footage from body-cameras shows police tormenting Daniel Prude for several minutes while he lay naked, handcuffed and hooded on a freezing street.

Trump campaign enlists army of poll-watchers to intimidate Democratic voters

By Barry Grey, 5 September 2020

The Trump campaign hopes to mobilize among its “poll watchers” the militia and vigilante types who have been attacking those protesting police violence and racism.

Washington DC’s mayor and Trump trade authoritarian demands in crackdown on peaceful protesters

By Ray Coleman and Nick Barrickman, 5 September 2020

The office of Washington, DC’s Democratic mayor has been upbraided by the federal prosecutor’s office for trying to “skirt constitutional protections and due process.”

New pandemic projections place US death toll at over 400,000 by end of the year

By Benjamin Mateus, 5 September 2020

The IHME prediction would see COVID-19 deaths comparable to the 1918 influenza pandemic, which took 675,000 lives in the US.

Washington slaps sanctions on International Criminal Court prosecutor

By Bill Van Auken, 5 September 2020

The sanctions, normally reserved for alleged terrorists or drug traffickers, are aimed at intimidating the ICC over its investigation of US war crimes.

NSA surveillance program exposed by Edward Snowden ruled illegal by US Ninth Circuit

By Kevin Reed, 5 September 2020

The US Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the bulk phone record collection program of the NSA—exposed by former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden in 2013—violated the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.

“Workers must refuse to be sacrificed in the name of profits at the hands of the ruling class”

Florida parent denounces Osceola County public school system’s unsafe reopening

By the World Socialist Web Site Educators Newsletter, 5 September 2020

This letter was sent to the WSWS Educators Newsletter to expose the atrocious conditions facing educators, students and parents in Ocseola County, which stands adjacent to Disney World but has the worst-funded education system in Florida.

Opposition to school reopenings mounts across Florida as spread of COVID-19 deepens

By Matthew Taylor, 5 September 2020

The forced reopening of schools across Florida is producing a catastrophe, with already over 1,200 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at dozens of schools.

SUNY Oneonta orders thousands of students to return home after more than 500 test positive for COVID-19

By Alex Findijs, 5 September 2020

As of Thursday night, a staggering 507 people had tested positive for COVID-19 on the campus, nearly 17 percent of the on-campus student body.

Teen in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania linked to 40 new COVID-19 cases

By Isaac Finn, 5 September 2020

The latest revelation by health officials comes as schools in the county, prepare to open for in-person learning on September 9th.

Management seeks to impose gag order on US postal workers

By Shuvu Batta, 5 September 2020

A leaked memo reveals new guidelines imposed by US Postal Service management to suppress information about internal conditions at post offices.

German imperialism and the strange case of Alexei Navalny

By Peter Schwarz, 5 September 2020

Politicians and media outlets in Western countries, and above all in Germany, have declared that Moscow is responsible for Navalny’s poisoning, and have escalated their calls for a confrontation with Russia.

End the blacklist of the World Socialist Web Site on Reddit!

By Kevin Reed, 5 September 2020

The blacklisting of the World Socialist Web Site on r/politics is a politically-motivated and unjustified attack on the rights of Reddit users to speak freely and read whatever they want on the link-sharing platform.

Chadwick Boseman (1976–2020): A talented actor, now hailed as a “king”

By Carlos Delgado, 5 September 2020

Far from honoring his memory, the media’s over-the-top eulogizing demeans the actor’s work and serves reactionary political ends.

US joblessness crisis worsens as nearly 900,000 file new unemployment claims

By Jacob Crosse, 4 September 2020

Millions of families’ daily existence has been reduced to the struggle for bare necessities as hunger continues to grow.

With tens of millions facing eviction in US

CDC issues emergency order pushing mass evictions off until January

By Gabriel Black, 4 September 2020

The emergency order will not reduce rent payments nor prevent the accrual of late fees.

Biden in Kenosha: Ignoring fascist killings, doubling down on identity politics

By Patrick Martin, 4 September 2020

The Democratic presidential candidate treated the events in Kenosha as the product of racism, saying nothing about the murders of two white protesters against police violence.

Memorial on Detroit’s Belle Isle provides sobering tribute to the city’s victims of coronavirus

By Stephen Fuller and Helen Halyard, 4 September 2020

The city declared Monday Detroit Memorial Day and transformed the state park into a large-scale memorial for the 1,500 residents who have died from COVID-19 so far this year.

School and college outbreaks make Iowa the US COVID-19 hotspot

By Benjamin Mateus, 4 September 2020

Rural communities in Midwest states are seeing a surge of new infections that are a byproduct of the murderous back-to-school policy being implemented by every state.

Drive to play college football continues as evidence mounts that games could be “superspreader” events

By Andy Thompson, 4 September 2020

Dozens of schools are still moving forward with plans to play games in front of tens of thousands of fans, and 77 of the 130 major college football programs will play their seasons in some form this fall.

Quebec teachers denounce unions for their complicity in reckless school reopening

By Louis Girard, 4 September 2020

Across the province, workers, parents and medical experts have expressed deep concern about the government’s school reopening plans.

Michigan’s “Poisoner-in-Chief” endorses Biden for president

By Sheila Brehm, 4 September 2020

Rick Snyder, the former Republican governor of Michigan, notorious for his role in the lead poisoning crisis in Flint, announced his support for the Democratic presidential ticket Thursday.

Oppose Trump’s mass arrest of 2,000 immigrants!

By Norissa Santa Cruz—SEP candidate for US vice president, 4 September 2020

The assault on immigrants across the United States is a threat to the entire working class.

“One student or teacher funeral is too many”

Teacher protests spread as COVID-19 rips through schools and universities

By Renae Cassimeda, 3 September 2020

Protests and job actions by educators opposed to the unsafe opening of schools have spread across the country as the drive to reopen public schools and universities has sparked a massive resurgence of COVID-19.

Biden launches massive “law and order” ad campaign

By Barry Grey, 3 September 2020

Biden’s new ad is part of a further shift of his campaign to the right. It is intended to reassure the ruling elite that he can be relied on to suppress growing social opposition.

New York deploys COVID-19 “SWAT Team” to SUNY Oneonta after six percent of students test positive for virus

By Alex Findijs, 3 September 2020

Governor Andrew Cuomo dispatched a team of contact tracers to Oneonta after 105 students tested positive just one week into classes. The outbreak is clear indication that the drive to reopen schools across the US will be a deadly disaster.

Markey wins Massachusetts Democratic primary with “progressive” masquerade

By Kate Randall, 3 September 2020

The pillar of the Democratic establishment for 40 years, who voted for the Iraq war, postured as a “left” using the support of Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.

Ford to slash 1,400 jobs as auto industry cuts widen

By Tim Rivers, 3 September 2020

Ford and other major corporations are exploiting the coronavirus pandemic to advance major restructuring measures, shedding jobs and ratcheting up the exploitation of those who remain.

GE Appliances workers in Louisville, Kentucky vote overwhelmingly to strike

By Zac Thorton, 3 September 2020

The company, which has remained highly profitable throughout the pandemic, is demanding the elimination of pensions and the maintenance of the two-tier wage system.